After you finish your research, you'll know a lot that could be useful
or interesting to others. Your final assignment for CM220 will be
to share what you've learned informally. You'll write an abstract,
share it with your classmates, and respond to any questions your
classmates may have.
Other formats that you might use on the job include
"Writing an abstract involves boiling down the essence
of a whole paper into a single paragraph that conveys as much new
information as possible," according to December
and Katz. They suggest that you first look at your introduction and
conclusion, then highlight the main points in the body of your paper,
and finally summarize this essential information in one paragraph.
For an argumentative paper, you should first state
your thesis, or the stand you are taking. Then you should summarize
the arguments you made in favor of your thesis (the pros on your
executive summary is a short summary of your paper. How short?
That depends. Some teachers ask that it be no more than 6–8 sentences.
Others say it should be no more than 10% of the length of your paper.
Teachers may also ask that you include specific headings in your executive
summary. If you have conducted a study, typical
headings would be
Purpose, Methods, Result, Conclusion, and Recommendation.
For CM220, you could use this one-page format:
If you've found some fascinating facts or want to recommend some resources,
you might prefer to do a 1–3 page handout. As Rob
"The formats of briefing notes vary widely," from handwritten notes
A United Nations briefing
paper on AIDS begins with statistics about how many people have
the disease, gives an overview of progress in fighting it,
and ends with some suggested resources.
The UN format would work well for sharing your findings, but a fact
sheet or an annotated bibliography would also be effective. Choose
the format that you think will be most convenient for your audience.
You can find other examples by searching for a topic + "fact sheet"
Ten Slide Tips (Garr Reynolds)
Pre-Presentation Jitters (Total Communicator)
the Un-Presentation (Total Communicator)
from the 2009 Annoying PowerPoint Survey (Paradi)
Rules for PowerPoint Presenters (Presentation Zen)
Presentation Skills: Tips for Effective Presenting (presentation-skills.biz)
NOT to Present with PowerPoint (presentation-skills.biz)
and Giving Oral Presentations
Writing Abstracts/Executive Summaries
for Writing Abstracts (UColorado)
to Write an Executive Summary (step-by-step instructions
a Powerful Executive Summary (Harvard Business School)
Executive Summary: Rhode Island housing issues (Morrison)
Writing (general tips on writing for executives)
Writing Fact Sheets
Is a Briefing Note? (Writing for Results)
Papers for Students (United Nations)
Briefing Paper No. 62: Protecting Civilians
Sheet (It All Adds Up to Cleaner Air)