bibliography is a list of sources. An annotation is a brief description.
annotated bibliography includes all the information you'd
put in your Reference list, plus a brief description of the source.
For examples of annotated bibliographies, see
Why not just call it a "list of sources"? Knowing the term bibliography makes it easier to find good information. For example, a Google search
for ADHD and
annotated bibliography turns up a site with articles, interviews,
and "links to other credible and useful resources." The New
Horizons site has everything you need to narrow your topic
and find good information on ADD/ADHD, including a bibliography.
a list of sources? When you choose a topic for a paper,
it's smart to check out whether enough
sources are available. You can also review your list
to be sure that your sources don't favor just one side of an issue.
As you look for sources, you're building background that
will help you understand what you read. According to
research paper is "a record of intelligent reading." Choosing your
sources carefully will give you more to think about, and therefore
more to write about.
a description? In a capstone course, having an overview of
quality resources saves you time. If you give a presentation,
you can hand out a list of recommended sources for those
who want more
example of how you might create a list of sources on the
job: an article on market
research that includes recommended resources.
course, your annotated
bibliography should cover sources you could use in your argument
Your list of possible sources should
at least six credible sources on the topic (nothing
from the National Enquirer, please!)
the full range of arguments on the topic, pro and con
Suppose you argue that "gay marriage
doesn't hurt anybody." An
says, "What about Stanley Kurtz's Scandanavian study?" You won't
prove your point
You need to know all of the arguments commonly made for and against your
position. For another example, see "Gun Control
Buzzwords" at SpeakOut.com.
more than one type of source. You might include sources from a professional
journal, reliable Web
sites, and metasites.
include a brief (2–4 sentence) summary of
what the source covers and a short (1–2 sentence)
explanation of why it's credible or useful. You might also explain how
it fits into your research.
Consider these questions:
- What audience
is this source intended to reach?
could this source be used for?
- Why does this
- Does anything makes this
source more valuable than others on the same
- Why can you trust this source?
written in APA format
An online tool will take you step-by-step through
creating an APA bibliography; free registration is
- Click on the Bedford
- First-time users will be asked to provide
an email address and choose a password.
- Once you log in, you will see a New
Project button in the top right corner.
You will also be able to access any bibliographies
you have created.
- Give your project a name and choose
American Psychological Association as your
documentation style. Then click the Create
- Add sources. First choose
a source type from the dropdown menu. Then answer
the questions. Helpful hints to the right
will help you follow APA
- To enter the text, click the Annotation and
Evaluation tabs. You do not need to
use the Content tab.
- When you are finished, click Save and
- You will see all of the entries you
have made. To create a bibliography, click
- You will be asked what should be included.
To create an annotated bibliography, choose
Include annotations and Include evaluations.
To create a reference list, check
- You can then download
your bibliography or have it emailed to you as an attachment.
Note: this citation-maker is more accurate
than Citation Machine. It even preserves
have questions about what needs to be included in your annotated
bibliography? See the Internet
Hints for Finding Sources below.
for Finding Sources
teachers can help you identify professional
find sites that list recommended resources on a topic, visit the
- To find the full range of opinions on a topic
your favorite search engine to search for a topic
and words like debate, controversy, pro con, or points
of view. (For example, go to www.vivisimo.com and
type "capital punishment" "points
of view" -essays in
the search box.)
- visit sites that explore many points
of view, such as ACLU, Debatabase, Hot
Topic Supersites, Public
Agenda Research Reports, The
Annenberg Public Policy Center, or Psychology
- search EBSCO's TOPICsearch database
for your topic and "points of view"
- If you're
not finding enough resources, use Ixquick or Metacrawler to
get results from several search engines at once.
- If you're
getting too many results or need different keywords, use Clusty or KartOO to
- If you
find a useful article in a database, you can usually email it to
yourself. Check the top or bottom of the screen for the email link.
- If you
want to remember a website, you can FurlIt!
to create your own personal web archive.
This a Good Annotated Bibliography? (.doc)
Edit form (.doc)
College Style Guide (APA citation style, updated for 5th edition)
Bibliographer (online tool)
tips for annotated bibliographies (Lesley University)
an Annotated Bibliography (step-by-step guide)
Summaries (analytic/evaluative summary is most helpful)
Bibliography (UMass Dartmouth)
to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography (Cornell)
to Distinguish Between Popular and Scholarly Periodicals
(UNC Writing Center)
Bibliographies (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
an Annotated Bibliography (UM-Crookston; good list of things
to Evaluate a Professional Journal Article (tutorial)